Tuesday, 13 March 2012

RINGKASAN ISU-ISU KESELAMATAN (NON-TRADITIONAL)

DIS 2093 ISU-ISU KESELAMATAN BUKAN TRADISIONAL
PROF DR TEH YIK KOON
FROM: AHMAD TAMIM DARI
UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA

RINGKASAN ISU-ISU KESELAMATAN (NON-TRADITIONAL)
this table is not too completed by me


TYPE
DEFINITION
THREAT
OVERCOME
CASE OR ISSUE
OTHER STATEMENT
Human security





Economic security
Christopher M. Dent (2010 ,244)
·          “safeguarding the structural integrity and prosperity capabilities and interests of a politico-economic entity in the context of various externalized risks and threats that confront it in the international economic system ”
Barry Buzan 83’ definition
·          ”Economic concerns access to the resources, finance and markets necessary to sustain acceptable levels of welfare and state power”
1994 Human Development Report
·          Unemployment- women, youth disable
·          Increasing insecurity of incomes
·          Inflation- real wages have declined
·          Income inequality, gander inequality
·          Welfare(kebajikan)-
·          Poverty
·          Pension
·          Homelessness
·          Poorest country cannot survive
·          Threat to the politic and military success (Spending, high technology, best brains)


Christopher M. Dent (2010 ,245-252) 8 different typologies
·          Supply security
·          Market-access security
·          Finance- credit security
·          Techno-Industrial capability security
·          Socio-economic paradigm security
·          Trans border community security
·          Systemic security
·           Alliance security
·          Indicator of economic security:
1.        Job security
2.        Income security

MERCHANTILISTS
LIBERALISTS
SOCIALISTS
Food security
MID 1970S:
·          ‘The availability of food and price stability of basic foodstuffs at the international and national level.’
1974 World Food Conference
·          ‘availability (kesediaan) at all times of adequate world foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption (makanan gantian) and to offset fluctuations (turun naik) in production and prices’
1983 FAO (include securing access):
·          ‘ensuring that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to the basic food that they need’
1986 World Bank Report Concept of food security
·           “access of all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life”
1994 Human Development Report
·          “food security means that all people at all times have both physical an economic access to basic food”
1996 World Food Summit in Rome
·          “Food security exists when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”

·          Famine
·          Hunger
·          Food crisis
·          Poverty
·          Levels of malnutrition
·          Starve even enough food
·          Food riots- deaths and injuries

·          To eradicate hunger in all countries with the target of reducing by half the number of undernourished people by no later than the year 2015
1996 World Summit in Rome
7 commitments made
·           
·           
·           
·           
·           
·           
·           
2009 World Summit on Food security
·          Poor countries need development
·          Economic and policy tools required boost(memperkembangkan) their agriculture production and productivities
·          Investment in agricultural must be increase
·          70% provides for livelihood (mata pencarian) in agricultural- world’s poor
·          Double in developing countries to reach 9.1 in 2050
·           
World Food Conference 1974 – issue of famine, hunger, food crisis, poverty and levels of malnutrition
1986 World Bank Report ‘Poverty And Hunger’ -  Food insecurity associated with poverty and low incomes, natural disaster, economic collapse or conflict
1943 Bengal famine- people can still starve even enough food is available.
2009 World Summit on Food security
·          Over 1billion hungry people in the world
·          5 children dying /30 seconds- 6 million a year
·          ‘Food riots’ with death and injuries, broke out in 22 countries in all the continents during 2007 and 2008

Health security
1946 WHO constitution (16)
·          The health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security (no specific mentioned)

2003 report of the commission human security
·          “good health is both essential and instrumental to achieving human security”
·          Poor nutrition
·          Unsafe environment
·          Inadequate doctor to people
·          Government spend
·          Inadequate fund to health
·          Doctor ratio to people
·          Epidemic
·          HIV/ AIDS
·          SARS
·          Influenza pandemic
·          bio terrorism ( external threat)
·          More towards primary health care approach
·          Emphasizing community involvement
·          Self-sufficiency
·          Protection of vulnerable group (pregnant women and poor)
·          Protection of national populations against external threat
1994 New Dimension of Human Security (NDHS 94’)
·          Major cause of death are infection and parasitic disease  kill 17 million people annually
·          DOCTOR RATIO
·          Industrial country 1:400
·          Development country 1:7000
·          Sub-Saharan Africa 1:36000
·          GOVERNMENT SPENDING
·          Republic Korea 377$/ capita
·          Bangladesh 7$/ Capita
·          3 million women die each year- child birth

Environmental security
Buzan- “the maintainance of the local and planetary biosphere as the essential support system on which all other human enterprises depend”
1994 Human Development Report
·          Water shortage
·          Deforestation
·          salinization
·          Impact of human activities on the environment
·          Common security
·          Environmental change and violent conflict
·          Environmental change and national security
·          Armed forces and the environment
·          Environment change and human security
·          Immediate Threats (Developing Countries) Deforestation and Desertification
·          Earthquake
·          Enormous growth of economic activities
·          Greenhouse gas emission
·          Damage planetary ozone layer
·          Impacts negatively on the health and well-being of humans
·          Disruption (ganguan) of ecosystems
·          Energy- depletion (kehabisan) of natural resource
·          Various form of pollution
·          Effect of human population growth
·          Related to food scarcities and uneven food distribution
·          Kyoto Protocol
·           
·          Cooperation between states
1967-91 Asia- 80% disaster hit three billion people. 7 million died and 2 million injured


Personal security
·           
·          Physical torture(state)
·          War(state)
·          ethnic tension (Group or people)
·          crime, street( Individual or gangs)
·          Rape(women)
·          Domestic violence
·          Child abuse (children base on their vulnerability and dependence)
·          Suicide and drug use (self-tension)
·          Great source of anxiety- violent crime
·          Car theft (from somebody)
·          Murder
·          Traffic accidents
·          Violence in the work place
·          Sex harassment  (women)
·           
·          Court system- punishment
·           
·          1992 US- 14 million crimes were report to the police- estimate 435 billion/year
·          Germany crime went up 10%
·          1980 Italy and Portugal double of murder rate and Germany tripled- caused drug trafficking
·          Brazil-  4 child are murder/day increase 40%
·          1993 Kenya 3300 reported car thefts-  increase of 200% over 1991


Community security
·          Societal security-Sustainable development of traditional patterns of language, culture, religions national identities, and customs of state
·          Community security- aims to protect people from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence
UNDP 1994 community definition- The security of the community as a functioning whole with its own specific identity and the security of the individuals within the community who should be protected from discriminatory practice instituted by the community itself
·          Migration and immigration
·          Repressive measures
·          Unbalance population
·          Ethnic cleansing- against member of the group:
1.        intentional killing,
2.        violence against
3.        Deportation of people
·          Cultural cleansing- perpetrated (melakukan jenayah) not against members of the group:
1.        Against manifestation of group culture
2.        Destruction of  mosque, church, monument
·          Discrimination
·          Inter-ethnic strive(pertengkaran)
·          Ethnic tensions-  limited access to opportunities, struggle for opportunities
·          UNDP 1994-Most people derive(mendapat) security from their memberships in a group- (family, a community, an organization, a racial or ethnic group that can provide a cultural identity and a reassuring set of values) 
·          Group practical support

·          UN declaration 1993- indigenous people to highlight the continuing vulnerability of the 300b million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a widening spiral of violence
·          1983-1994- Sri Langka- more than 14000 people have died in the conflict between the Tamils and the Shinhalese
·          1981-1994 Yugoslavia (Serbians vs Bosnians)- more than 130,000 people have been killed and more than 40000 helpless women reportedly raped(ethnic cleansing

Political security
UN human Development Report 1994
People should be able to live in a society that honors their basic human rights
UN human Development Report 1994
·          Their basic human right (human right abuse)
·          Control over ideas and information
·          Military interventions
·          Police use as agents of repression

·          Human Right are right inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status
·          Human right is the cornerstone of international human right law
·          Promote and protect human right and fundamental freedom of individual or group
·          UDHR- basic civil, political, economic, social and cultural right that all human beings should be enjoy.
According to a 1993 survey Amnesty International,
·           political repression, systematic torture, ill treatment or disappearance was still practiced in 110 countries
·          Unrest commonly result in military intervention in 64 country.

Freedom of press
Regime security

State security- the condition where the institutions processes and infrastructures of the state are able to continue functioning effectively regardless of the make-up of the ruling elite.
Alan collin’s book
The condition where governing elites are secure from violent challenges to their rule
Alan collin’s book
Weak state
·          Violent transfers of power
·          Insurgency
·          Secession (penarikan diri)
·          Genocide
·          Warlordism
·          States collapse
·          Anarchy
·          Infrastructural capacity (ability of state to perform essential tasks and enact policy)
·          Coercive capacity (state’s ability and willingness to employ force against challenges to its authority)
·          National identity and social cohesion (the degree to which the population identifies with the nation states accepts its legitimate role in their lives)
Internal problem:
·          Armed forces (coup d’etat)
·          Strong men (individual or group)
·          Warlords or criminal gangs.


·          Weak state elites typically employ a mix of internal and external strategies aimed at regime survival
Internal strategies
·          State intimidation (gertakan)
·          Weakening the armed forces (kurangkan tentera)
·          Establishing patronage system(system pertolongan?)
·          Ethnic manipulation (gunakan etnik yg ada)- ‘divide and rule’
·          Manipulation of democratic political process
External strategies
·          Employ private military or security company
·          Obtaining military support from superpowers
·          Weak state join up with other weak state elites in the region


Energy and resource security
·          Large enough to meet the need of the political, military, economic, societal activity. Those sources must be able to deliver such quantities of energy in a reliable and stable manner and for the foreseeable future.
·          Consumers- the availability of sufficient supplies at affordable prices without disruption
·          Resource producing countries- security of revenue and of demand (Russia- strategic resources)
·          Oil and gas companies -consider access to new reserves
·          Shortage resources
·          Hurricane katrina
·          Tension over nuclear program (Tehran)
·          Attack on some oil facilities (Nigeria export to US)
·          Power blackout
·          Terrorism
·          Fear of scramble for supplies, arm conflict
To maintain energy and resource security (Danie yergin, 2006)-1973
Winston Churchill
·          Diversification of supply
·          Resilience-  security margin
·          Spare production
·          Strategic reserves
·          Backup supplies of equipment
·          Adequate storage capacity
·          Recognizing the reality of integration
·          No conflict or conquest
·          Importance of information- no panic buying


Cyber security

·          IT and internet has changed our life style

·          New form of crime emerged
·          The protection of data system in networks that are connected to the internet
·          Internet  security- The protection of a computer internet account and files from intrusion  of an unknown user


·          Hacking
·          Virus attack
·          Stealing information
·          Stealing money
·          Laundering of illegal money
·          Intrusion
·          Harassment
·          Fraud
·          Pornography
·          Sedition/ defamation/ hate speech
·          Cripple businesses
·          Cause chaos/ tension
·          Make money
·          Espionage/ spying on individual

Malaysia- Cyber security Malaysia (national cyber security) under MOSTI (Ministry of science technology and innovation)
UN has not been actively involved although meeting, workshop, etc have taken place.
Mostly on terrorist groups and organized criminal enterprises taking advantage of the internet
·          Dec 09’ cyber attack operation aurora –china against google 20 companies
·          May 17/07’- Estonia cyber attack- Estonia parliament ministries banks and media were target
·          2003- New York blackout- financial loses 6bilions USD
·          January 2003- slammer Ohio’s davis-besse nuclear power plant- disable a safety monitoring system for nearly 5 hours
·          2003- So big computer virus was blamed- shutting down train signaling system.
Liberalism
Realism
Historical materialism

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